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Modifications for various applications




Puromycin is one of the aminonucleoside antibiotics which can be isolated from streptomyces strain Streptomyces alboniger. Puromycin shows structural similarity with the base adenosine or N6-N6-dimethyladenosine. Its effect is based on the inhibition of protein biosynthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome via a peptide bond and thus affecting the growth of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.1 As an analogue of an aminoacyl-tRNA, puromycin can bind to the ribosomal A-site and integrates into the growing polypeptide chain. This leads to immediate termination of chain elongation, the ribosomal subunit dissociates and finally the translation stops.2 After termination, puromycin is located at the C-terminus of the truncated, newly synthesized protein and inhibits continuation of synthesis.3


Puromycin at the 3´-end of an oligonucleotide offers puromycin as 3´-modification with a maximum length of 45 bases. 
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1. Molecular cloning and characterization of gene encoding novel puromycin-inactivating enzyme from blasticidin S-producing Streptomyces morookaensis. Nishimura M, Ikeda K, Sugiyama M; J Biosci Bioeng. (2006), 101(1):63-9.

2. Identification and characterization of a drug-sensitive strain enables puromycin-based translational assays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cary GA, Yoon SH, Torres CG, Wang K, Hays M, Ludlow C, Goodlett DR, Dudley AM; Yeast (2014), (5):167-78.

3. Puromycin oligonucleotides reveal steric restrictions for ribosome entry and multiple modes of translation inhibition. Starck SR, Roberts RW; RNA (2002), 8:890–903. 

Acridinium ester

Acridinium ester


In molecular biology, acridinium esters are commonly used for selective labeling of proteins and nucleic acids1. The acridinium ester can be bound to the corresponding target molecule (DNA, protein) by a covalent linkage2. According to their highly sensitive chemiluminescence releasing in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, acridinium esters also can be used for clinical diagnostics. In contrast to radiolabeled DNA, acridinium ester linkages provide a sensitive, stable and above all safe detection method in immunoassays3.

Acridinium ester at the 3´- or 5´-terminus of an oligonucleotide offers acridinium ester as 3'- or 5'-modification up to a length of 45 bases. 
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1. Acridinium ester chemiluminescence: pH dependent hydrolysis of reagents and flow injection analysis of hydrogen peroxide and glutamate. Stuever Kaltenbach M, Arnold MA; Microchimica Acta (1992), Volume 108, Issue 3-6, pp 205-219.

2. Acridinium ester-labelled DNA oligonucleotide probes. Septak M; J Biolumin Chemilumin. (1989), (1):351-6.

3. Acridinium esters as high-specific-activity labels in immunoassay. Weeks I, Beheshti I, McCapra F, Campbell AK, Woodhead JS; Clin Chem. (1983), (8):1474-9.